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5 November 1992 Real-time three-dimensional imaging sonar for in-situ tracking of zooplankton in the ocean
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Marine zooplankton form a significant part of the marine ecosystem since they are relatively low on the food chain and they exist in vast quantities. However, little is known of their behavior, how they feed, how they interact or their swimming patterns. To explore some of these issues a three-dimensional imaging sonar was developed to track the movements of these zooplankton in their native environment. The tracking problem requires a high frequency sonar with a fast frame update rate and reasonably high resolutions in three dimensions. It also requires a small array to minimize the proximity effects of the transducer package on the zooplankton behavior, to allow mounting of the transducer array on small remotely operated submersible vehicles and to reduce the cost of the sonar. This led to an array architecture which resolves the target volume of interest into a three-dimensional array of volumetric units that are digitized and stored in computer memory. This digitized array of numbers is then processed by the computer and the results displayed using a three-dimensional graphics imaging package to present a 3-D image depicting the back scatter strength of the target volume along with the location of any objects within that volume.
© (1992) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Edward L. Reuss and Jules S. Jaffe "Real-time three-dimensional imaging sonar for in-situ tracking of zooplankton in the ocean", Proc. SPIE 1733, New Developments in Ultrasonic Transducers and Transducer Systems, (5 November 1992);

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