A system is described for calibrating high flux (1011 W) x-ray detectors using moderate flux (10-4 W) synchrotron and low flux (10-7 W) conventional x-ray producing machines. The detectors have been designed for output currents of one milliampere to 100 amperes which results in output currents during calibration of approximately 10-16 to 10-12 amperes. The small calibration output currents led to the development of statistical methods to reduce the calibration measurement errors to acceptable levels. A personal computer is used to acquire, analyze, store, and display the calibration data in real time to allow the scientist to explore and correct the calibration technique or eliminate external noise sources.
George C. Idzorek,
Robert G. Hockaday,
"Calibration techniques for high flux x-ray detectors", Proc. SPIE 1736, X-Ray Detector Physics and Applications, (3 February 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.140472; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.140472