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21 January 1993 Molecular contamination and the calibration of AXAF
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By the end of this decade, the two missions comprising the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) will become the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatories. In order to meet some of the ambitious scientific objectives, the AXAF team plans to calibrate the telescopes and instruments to an accuracy of a few percent. Particulate and molecular contamination potentially limit this precision, because they would likely change between ground calibration and orbital operation. To avoid this requires careful control over procedures affecting the coated optical surfaces, to ensure that neither particulate nor molecular contamination compromise the calibration. In particular, the fractional areal coverage by particulates or condensed droplets must be less than 0.005 projected onto the aperture plane; the thickness of any molecular film must be less than a few tens of angstrom.
© (1993) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Ronald F. Elsner, Stephen L. O'Dell, and Martin C. Weisskopf "Molecular contamination and the calibration of AXAF", Proc. SPIE 1742, Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Projection Lithography, (21 January 1993);

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