31 December 1992 Scattering by bubbles: general features, shape effects, and optical probes of bubble dynamics
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Bubbles in water or ice are examples of scatterers where the refractive index of the scatterer is less than the surrounding media. For most situations of interest, the size of the bubble is much greater than a wavelength so that many prominent features of the scattering may be identified by the application of ray methods. Such features include: caustics (associated with backward and forward glory scattering and their unfoldings for spheroidal bubbles), critical angle scattering (which may be observed in sunlit bubble clouds in sea water), and Brewster angle scattering (where the reflection of parallel polarized light is quenched). The scattering amplitude near singular features such as caustics and critical angle scattering require physical-optics corrections or, in the case of the critical angle, a detailed asymptotic analysis. Various ones of these features and polarization properties have been observed with laser illumination of freely rising spherical or spheroidal bubbles in water. Modulation of the extinction cross section and modulation of the critical angle scattering were used to study the dynamics of bubbles in laboratory experiments.
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Philip L. Marston, Philip L. Marston, Thomas J. Asaki, Thomas J. Asaki, John S. Stroud, John S. Stroud, Eugene H. Trinh, Eugene H. Trinh, "Scattering by bubbles: general features, shape effects, and optical probes of bubble dynamics", Proc. SPIE 1750, Ocean Optics XI, (31 December 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.140680; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.140680

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