13 January 1993 Artificial index surface relief diffraction optical elements
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Using technologies originally developed for the electronics industry, like photolithography, e- beam writing, and dry etching, good quality diffractive elements with useful physical properties can be produced directly upon a given surface. Particularly interesting are grating structures in which the macroscopic properties differ from the microscopic properties. An example of this is when the dimensions of the micro-structure of the grating are much less than the incident wavelength. In this case the properties of the material in the microstructure are `averaged over,' in effect producing a new artificial or distributed index material. In this paper we discuss our preliminary results modelling, making, and measuring several such diffractive artificial index elements for use in the far IR.
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Sergey V. Babin, Helmut Haidner, Peter Kipfer, Adolf Lang, John T. Sheridan, Wilhelm Stork, and Norbert Streibl "Artificial index surface relief diffraction optical elements", Proc. SPIE 1751, Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications II, (13 January 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.138882; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.138882

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