(beta) -BaB2O4((beta) -BBO) is known as one of the best inorganic nonlinear crystals. It is now widely used for frequency doubling, frequency mixing in the UV range and optical parametric oscillation in the UV and near infrared regions. To put this material into thin film form would make it very attractive for integrated optical devices. Vacuum deposition techniques are not suitable for the fabrication of borates thin films due to the difficult evaporation or sputtering of oxides based on light elements. The low processing temperature of the sol-gel method allows the formation of stoichiometric and expected oxygen coordination of BaB2O4 in liquid phase. (beta) -BBO thin films has been successfully prepared by the sol-gel method through hydrolysis of barium and boron alkoxides. The accomplishment of hydrolysis is found to be essential for the removal of residual organic at high temperatures. The choice of precursors, hydrolysis ratio, and thermal treatments have critical influences on the formation, the morphology and the nucleation of (beta) -BBO phase of the film. The undesirable interaction between the film and the substrate limits the formation of (beta) -BBO polycrystalline film to only a few selected substrates.
Christian Louis Lurin,
Gustavo R. Paz-Pujalt,
"Sol-gel derived β-BBO thin film", Proc. SPIE 1758, Sol-Gel Optics II, (7 December 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.132022; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.132022