1 May 1992 Modelling integrated sensor/actuator functions in realistic environments
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Smart materials are expected to adapt to their environment and provide a usefulresponse to changes in the environment. Both the sensor and actuator functions with theappropriate feedback must be integrated and comprises the 'brains' of the material.Piezoelectric ceramics have proved to be effective as both sensors and actuators for a widevariety of applications. Thus, realistic simulation models are needed that can predict theperformance of smart materials that incorporate piezoceramics. The environment may includefluid loading, material damping, the effect of the backing structure and changes in both thestructure and the environment. In all cases, the smart material should sense the change andmake a useful response. A hybrid finite element method in conjunction with a boundaryelement technique is used to model the fields in and around a smart coating containingpiezoceramic elements mounted on an immersed structure. The properties of the backing andmatching layers as well as the host material in which the transducer elements are embedded areconsidered in the modeling. The effect of cross talk and influence of neighboring elements isstudied by taking into account the effect of neighboring elements in increasing order. Thecross talk is also studied as a function of element spacing and material properties. Numericalsimulation of the performance of several types of smart materials have been performed. Thesimulation is compared with experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of both thetheory and the dependable performance of piezoceramic elements as sensors and actuators.
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Vasundara V. Varadan, Vasundara V. Varadan, "Modelling integrated sensor/actuator functions in realistic environments", Proc. SPIE 1777, First European Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 177702 (1 May 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.2298025; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2298025

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