In these several years piezoelectric and electro-strictive actuatorshave become very popular for micro-positioning in optical and precisionmachinery fields. Aiming at wide commercialization of these actuators, manyinvestigations have been made in the improvement of ceramic materials foractuators, designs of the devices and control and systemization of theactuators. This paper reviews recent applications of piezoelectric/electrostrictive ceramics from a viewpoint of "smart" actuators and systems.
Kenji Uchino, Kenji Uchino,
"Piezoelectric ceramics in smart actuators and systems", Proc. SPIE 1777, First European Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 17770Z (1 May 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.2298058; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2298058