1 May 1992 Shape memory alloy adjustable camber (SMAAC) control surfaces
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The SMAAC control surface concept is an adjustable camber foil which isactuated by shape memory alloy wires to control flight of hydrodynamic or aerodynamicvehicles. An operational model of a SMAAC control surface was fabricated anddemonstrated in a water tunnel. Lift measurements in the water tunnel indicated that theSMAAC foil produces 40% higher lift force than rigid foils at.the same angle of attack.Flow visualization showed that the wake behind a SMAAC foil was a factor of 3 smallerthan the rigid foil at equivalent lift. The next generation SMAAC design is presented.
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Charles H. Beauchamp, "Shape memory alloy adjustable camber (SMAAC) control surfaces", Proc. SPIE 1777, First European Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 177712 (1 May 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.2298061; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2298061

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