15 April 1993 New ray-tracing method for radial gradient-index lenses
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A new method to derive algebraic formulae for tracing skew rays in radial gradient-index media is described. We obtained power series for the ray position and direction, optical path length, and coordinates of the intersection point of the curved ray with the spherical end surface of the GRIN lens. All these formulae include the effects of terms up to the eighth power of the radius in the refractive index distribution.
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Florian Bociort, Florian Bociort, Jürgen Kross, Jürgen Kross, "New ray-tracing method for radial gradient-index lenses", Proc. SPIE 1780, Lens and Optical Systems Design, 17800E (15 April 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.142807; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.142807

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