17 December 1992 Multilevel coherent and direct-detection optical transmission: systems and applications
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A review is presented of multilevel coherent and DD optical transmission systems with the aim of a comparative analysis between conventional modulation formats, such as N-PSK, N-QAM and new modulation/demodulation techniques, such as N-4QSK, N-SPSK and PM-DD. Besides the conceptual relevance of new multilevel modulation formats proposed to exploit the transmission characteristics of single-mode optical fibers, important applications can be foreseen like, for example, multiple parallel paths between network nodes or transmission between different processing units of supercomputers.
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Silvello Betti, Silvello Betti, Giancarlo De Marchis, Giancarlo De Marchis, Eugenio Iannone, Eugenio Iannone, } "Multilevel coherent and direct-detection optical transmission: systems and applications", Proc. SPIE 1787, Multigigabit Fiber Communications, (17 December 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.139329; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.139329

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