An optical time-division multiple-access (OTDMA) network architecture has been proposed which has the potential of avoiding electronic processing of signals at the aggregate network bandwidth. New specifications for the optical components used in this OTDMA network architecture will be required before a practical system is realized. In this paper, we present a model of the OTDMA architecture that relates parameters at the device level such as carrier mobility, physical geometry, charge trapping, and carrier-concentration to system-level performance measured such as bit error rate and noise margin. We present mathematical models of the devices in the system. These models are interconnected into a system-level Monte Carlo simulation model of the OTDMA architecture. The photoconductive AND device, a critical component in the OTDMA receiver, is modeled as a time-varying circuit element (conductance) in a microstrip transmission line. Device-level physics of the photoconductor is incorporated into the microstrip model via a time-varying conductance. We base the simulation model of the AND device on the explicit second order Adams-Bashforth formulation. Alternative simulation modeling approaches, including feed-forward artificial neural networks, are also used with excellent results. Simulation of the OTDMA network is in good agreement with our approximate analysis, in addition to laboratory measurements.