21 May 1993 Modeling stress-induced void growth in Al-4wt%Cu lines
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Stress-induced void growth is modeled for the case of a void bounded by two neighbors by invoking the one-dimensional diffusion equation. The resultant equation is then convoluted with an exponential distribution for void spacing to generate the mean void size as a function of time. Volumetric strain, atomic diffusivity and activation energy are then extracted for a given metallization and passivation system by fitting measured mean void size data to the analytical curve.
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Stewart E. Rauch, Timothy D. Sullivan, "Modeling stress-induced void growth in Al-4wt%Cu lines", Proc. SPIE 1805, Submicrometer Metallization: Challenges, Opportunities, and Limitations, (21 May 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.145471; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.145471

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