The speed of modern supercomputers is primarily limited by the relatively slow speed of memory. Research over the past years has focused on developing optical memory systems that, by nature of optics, promise to achieve high speed and high memory capacity. Three- dimensional optical memory systems are well known for their storage capacity and achievable short access time. But the early attempts to exploit 3-dimensional media were limited to photorefractive crystals such as lithium niobate, due to the unavailability of any other suitable medium (alternative media are precluded by their diffraction limited storage densities and non- erasable characteristics). Although volume phase holograms can be recorded in photorefractive crystals, these materials have many obvious flaws such as strong scattering, phase distortion, self diffraction, fast decay, and low refractive index modulation. There have also been continuous efforts to develop new 3-D media (such as photon echo, photorefractive polymers, bacteriorhodusphin, memory access cache, etc., but none can be applied in real world 3-D device because these materials are still in the early stage of development.