12 July 1993 Smart optical and image sensors fabricated with industrial CMOS/CCD semiconductor processes
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Abstract
Photosensitive elements with well-chosen geometry, combined with suitable analog and digital circuitry on the same CMOS/CCD chip, lead to 'smart image sensors' with interesting capabilities and properties. All our smart sensors were fabricated with commercially available multi-process wafer services of CMOS process, one of them with a buried-channel CCD option. Measurement of the optoelectronic properties of standard CMOS/CCD processes (wavelength-dependent quantum efficiency, lateral homogeneity of quantum efficiency/photo- conductivity, CCD charge transport efficiency, etc.) show excellent performance. The smartness that lies in the geometry is illustrated with a single-chip motion detector, a 3-D depth video camera, a single-chip planar distance sensor, and a sine/cosine (Fourier) transform sensor for fast optical phase measurements. The concept of problem-adapted geometry is also shown with a dynamic frame-transfer CCD whose pixel size and shape can be changed electrically in real-time through charge-binning. Based on the wavelength-dependent absorption of silicon, all-solid-state color pixels are demonstrated by properly arranging the available pn-junctions in the third (bulk) dimension. Moderate color measurement performance is achieved using an unmodified CMOS/CCD process, with a CIE general color-rendering index of Ra equals 69.5.
© (1993) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Peter Seitz, Dirk Leipold, Joerg Kramer, Jeffrey M. Raynor, "Smart optical and image sensors fabricated with industrial CMOS/CCD semiconductor processes", Proc. SPIE 1900, Charge-Coupled Devices and Solid State Optical Sensors III, (12 July 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.148605; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.148605
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