29 July 1993 Thermal damage quantification from tissue birefringence image analysis
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Decreased collagen or cardiac muscle birefringence in transmission polarizing microscopy is an observable measure of damaged tissue concentration. Accordingly, monochrome images of thermally damaged tissue exhibiting decreased birefringence provide important information about the tissue thermal history, which is often extremely difficult to measure globally during an experiment. Thus, a damage quantification algorithm based on monochrome tissue images exhibiting decreased values corresponding to estimated temperature distributions. The algorithm consists of initially time-averaging several video frames of the microscopic tissue image to reduce additive noise components and an additional multiplicative correction for optical nonuniformities. Subsequently, morphological close-opening and mean filtering of the tissue image is performed using a unit gain arbitrarily-sized square template, followed by background subtraction and scaling, producing the components required for the damage computation according to the volume fraction kinetic damage model. The algorithm has been applied to tissue images derived from an experimental protocol generating approximately linear thermal gradients along the axis perpendicular to the tissue surface plane and constant temperatures in the plane parallel to the tissue surface. The resulting thermally exposed tissue specimens exhibit decreased birefringence in damaged regions which is quantified and delineated automatically by this algorithm. Give the damage value at a specified tissue position, the temperature was also estimated. These temperature estimates approximate finite difference method numerical models of the experiment.
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Tom J. McMurray, Andre Han, John Anthony Pearce, "Thermal damage quantification from tissue birefringence image analysis", Proc. SPIE 1905, Biomedical Image Processing and Biomedical Visualization, (29 July 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.148628; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.148628

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