8 September 1993 Void-and-cluster method for dither array generation
Author Affiliations +
Proceedings Volume 1913, Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display IV; (1993)
Event: IS&T/SPIE's Symposium on Electronic Imaging: Science and Technology, 1993, San Jose, CA, United States
Halftoning to two or more levels by means of ordered dither has always been attractive because of its speed and simplicity. However, the so-called recursive tessellation arrays in wide use suffer from strong periodic structure that imparts an unnatural appearance to resulting images. A new method for generating homogeneous ordered dither arrays is presented. A dither array is built by looking for voids and clusters in the intermediate patterns and relaxing them to optimize isotropy. While the method can be used for strikingly high quality artifact-free dithering with relatively small arrays, it is quite general; with different initial conditions the familiar recursive tessellation arrays can be built. This paper presents the algorithm for generating such arrays. Example images are compared with other ordered dither and error diffusion-based techniques.
© (1993) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Robert A. Ulichney "Void-and-cluster method for dither array generation", Proc. SPIE 1913, Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display IV, (8 September 1993); Logo
Cited by 177 scholarly publications and 1 patent.
Get copyright permission

Binary data


Nanoimprint lithography

Nonlinear filtering

Linear filtering



Memory efficient error diffusion
Proceedings of SPIE (January 13 2003)
Document image decoding using iterated complete path search
Proceedings of SPIE (December 21 2000)
Rank-ordered error diffusion: method and applications
Proceedings of SPIE (January 29 2007)

Back to Top