15 September 1993 Delay-time effects between exposure and post-exposure bake in acetal-based deep-UV photoresists
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Abstract
This paper presents some methods for the investigation of delay time I3 induced effects typical of an advanced acetal-based photoresist, and strategies to improve the latent image stability. Dissolution rate monitoring was used to investigate the increasing formation of a surface inhibition layer with extended intervals I3. The impact of certain additives, the application of a protective coating (AZR Aquatar), and modified process conditions on the inhibition layer were studied in detail. The photoacid induced acetal cleavage was monitored by UV-spectroscopy (248 nm). Upon KrF excimer laser irradiation the resist absorbance increases, due to the progressing formation of a strongly absorbing aldehyde fragment. SEM pictures confirm a linear relationship between the efficiency of the acetal cleavage and acid diffusion into unexposed resist areas. Acid evaporation during PEB was determined by a novel method, the so-called Sandwich `Blue' Test. Interpretations of the experimental results and some optimization strategies are given.
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Horst Roeschert, Charlotte Eckes, Hajime Endo, Yoshiaki Kinoshita, Takanori Kudo, Seiya Masuda, Hiroshi Okazaki, Munirathna Padmanaban, Klaus Juergen Przybilla, Walter Spiess, Natusmi Suehiro, Horst Wengenroth, and Georg Pawlowski "Delay-time effects between exposure and post-exposure bake in acetal-based deep-UV photoresists", Proc. SPIE 1925, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing X, (15 September 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.154753; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.154753
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