31 August 1993 Potential of active microwave sensors in monitoring underground permafrost
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A mathematical evaluation of the potential of active microwave sensors for monitoring underground permafrost is carried out. For this purpose, the Helmholtz Integral is used to relate the scattered field to the field inside the permafrost. A mathematical formation is derived for the scattered field by estimating the inner field through a generalized Rayleigh- Gans approximation. Numerical calculation show that the freezing thawing process is the dominant factor determining the relative level of the backscattered signal.
© (1993) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Mostafa A. Karam, Mostafa A. Karam, David M. Le Vine, David M. Le Vine, } "Potential of active microwave sensors in monitoring underground permafrost", Proc. SPIE 1941, Ground Sensing, (31 August 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.154693; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.154693

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