24 September 1993 Absolute orientation of photo pairs using GPS and laser profiles
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The determination of absolute orientation of image pairs is a central task in aerial photogrammetry. The usual way in photogrammetry to determine the absolute orientation is using control points. Acquisition of control points (i.e. the signalization of control points and the preservations over a longer period) is a very time and cost intensive task. Using new sensors as combined systems, the effort for the acquisition of control points to determine the absolute orientation could be minimized or even avoided. Beside the airborne camera, GPS, two laser profilers and an inertial system are used as additional sensors. The laser profilers are looking sidewards, so that during the stripewise flight over the photogrammetric block laser profiles at the upper and lower border of the strip are recorded. GPS- and INS-Data are registered during the whole time of the flight. Using this method there is following additional information for each image pair: (1) GPS determined coordinates of the projection centers of each image, (2) INS determined attitude angles for the absolute orientation of the laser profile, and (3) GPS and INS supported (i.e. absolute oriented) laser profiles at the upper and lower border of each image pair. Using an iterating method utilizing the additional laser profile and GPS information, the absolute orientation of an image pair could be performed without using additional control points.
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Johannes Kilian and Dieter Fritsch "Absolute orientation of photo pairs using GPS and laser profiles", Proc. SPIE 1944, Integrating Photogrammetric Techniques with Scene Analysis and Machine Vision, (24 September 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.155797; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.155797

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