Based on a unique experimental technique, measurement results are presented on the passive, remote sensing of the optical modulation transfer function of desert atmospheres (MTFA), including the dc, low, and high spatial cutoff frequency components which are attributed to contrast, aerosol, and turbulence, respectively. In particular, use of this technique has made it possible, for the first time, to directly measure the low spatial frequency cutoff of the aerosol component. This technique is based on utilizing digital image processing of remote video scenes which include two, optically identical, castellated targets which are located at different distances and are contrasted against the horizontal sky. Ratios of apparent contrast and FFT calculations are used to determine the MTFA components, including the spatial cutoff frequencies of the aerosol and turbulence components, independent of the imaging system and actual properties of the targets. The experimental technique is described along with current MTFA component measurements.