Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m2. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.
Christopher P. Cameron,
"High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications", Proc. SPIE 1997, High Heat Flux Engineering II, (12 November 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.163821; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.163821