An investigation of the effects of elastic hysteresis on certain ball bearing/plate configurations used in optics mounting (when subjected to rolling-sliding friction forces) has been performed. The energy losses attributable to surface friction breakaway coefficients were measured. The elastic strain work in the ball and plate material has been proven to be the primary cause of the inherent, measurable energy loss of hysteresis. This paper compares the hysteresis work loss of different ball bearing sizes and materials when interacting with tungsten carbide plate. In addition, the Dahl friction force (i.e., the friction force required to move a ball within the linear region of the static friction curve) is demonstrated and measured. Ball materials of stainless steel, ceramic, and tungsten carbide were subjected to laboratory testing with results indicating that the forces of rolling and/or sliding friction are influenced by, and dependent upon the ball size and material used in the ball bearing support mount. Also, a methodology for performing calculations of the rolling friction breakaway forces extending beyond the Dahl friction regime (at the transition point of static to dynamic) is demonstrated.
Peter H. Vo, Peter H. Vo,
"Influence of elastic hysteresis on combined (rolling-sliding) friction", Proc. SPIE 1998, Optomechanical Design, (16 September 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.156621; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.156621