1 February 1994 Application of laser plasma sources in soft x-ray projection lithography
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Abstract
Laser plasma sources convert 1 - 2% of the incident laser energy into soft x rays that can be used in multilayer-based reflective systems. These sources are useful in the laboratory for development of soft-x-ray projection lithography (SXPL). In the commercialization of SXPL technology, the laser plasma source offers the advantages of modularity and lower cost, when compared to the alternative synchrotron source. The characteristics of the source define requirements for other system components. The condensing system, which collects radiation from the plasma source and directs it onto the mask, must be designed to match the source size and the aperture of the imaging objective. The first surface of the condenser is subject to damage by unwanted debris from the plasma source. This paper discusses several of the major issues involved in using laser plasma sources in SXPL experiments and provides examples of experimental solutions. Simulated and actual soft-x-ray images are shown.
© (1994) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Daniel A. Tichenor, Glenn D. Kubiak, Michael E. Malinowski, Richard H. Stulen, Steven J. Haney, Kurt W. Berger, Rodney P. Nissen, Randal L. Schmitt, G. A. Wilkerson, P. S. Jin, William C. Sweatt, Weng W. Chow, John E. Bjorkholm, Richard R. Freeman, Marc D. Himel, Alastair A. MacDowell, Donald M. Tennant, Obert R. Wood, Warren K. Waskiewicz, Donald L. White, David L. Windt, Tanya E. Jewell, "Application of laser plasma sources in soft x-ray projection lithography", Proc. SPIE 2015, Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation, (1 February 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.167986; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.167986
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