16 December 1993 Polymer modulators for broadband communications
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Nonlinear optical polymers offer substantial potential for improvement over inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3 for the fabrication of electro-optic modulators. In this paper, we discuss the challenges and progress in the area of E-O modulator design and fabrication, with particular emphasis on the requirements of the fiber-optics communications industry. In communications, E-O modulators must compete with direct-current modulation of diode lasers--a well established technology with strong industry support. E-O modulators in general, and polymer modulators in particular, must offer improvements such as increased optical powers, higher bandwidth and lower cost, while maintaining high reliability and good environmental performance. These challenges require substantial improvements in materials and device design, as well as the modulator fabrication and processing. We will discuss these challenges and some of the ways that improvements in polymer materials have addressed (and continue to address) these issues.
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Stephen R. Schaefer, William J. Swafford, "Polymer modulators for broadband communications", Proc. SPIE 2025, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, (16 December 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.165284; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.165284

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