15 September 1993 Process integration issues in chemical-vapor-deposited copper-based metallization
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We have studied the microstructure, surface roughness, conformality and adhesion properties of chemical vapor deposited copper films using (hfac)Cu(VTMS) in an effort to identify and address some of these issues. The microstructure and surface roughness of the deposited films were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The film microstructure changed from columnar oriented faceted grains to finer and more equiaxed grains while the film roughness increased as precursor partial pressure was increased in the reactor chamber. Conformal films were deposited into trenches with sub-half micron openings and aspect ratios greater than 1. The adhesion of CVD copper films on titanium nitride (TiN) and tungsten (W) was also evaluated. The results from this study demonstrate the applicability of CVD copper for ULSI.
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Ajay Jain, Ajay Jain, Toivo T. Kodas, Toivo T. Kodas, Rahul Jairath, Rahul Jairath, Mark J. Hampden-Smith, Mark J. Hampden-Smith, "Process integration issues in chemical-vapor-deposited copper-based metallization", Proc. SPIE 2090, Multilevel Interconnection: Issues That Impact Competitiveness, (15 September 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.156533; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.156533

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