15 September 1993 Yield and reliability of laser-formed vertical links
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Vertical links have been processed by application of Q-switched Nd:YAG and Excimer Laser pulses. Investigations were carried out on three different standard CMOS double level metallizations (LS1-LS3). Experimental yield YR, contact resistance RK, their mean Rm and related standard deviations (sigma) R were obtained from special test structures: contact interconnect (CI) system connected by probe pads and CBKR chains. Simple expanded interconnections of sizes 10 X 10 micrometers 2 (102), 142, and 202 (LS3: 9.62, 12.62, and 19.52) turned out to be best suitable. In yield evaluation, RK > 3(Omega) was treated as a failure. Nd:YAG processing gave 100% YR for 142, 202, and 19.52 antifuses. Excimer laser processing of LS2 resulted in 100% YR for 142 and 202 antifuses, 12.62-antifuses of LS3 could be connected with YR of 99.5%. Conventional accelerated life time tests were carried out on contact chains of LS1 and LS3. For LS3, EA and n were determined with TRACE.
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Hans-Dieter Hartmann, Hans-Dieter Hartmann, Thomas Hillmann-Ruge, Thomas Hillmann-Ruge, } "Yield and reliability of laser-formed vertical links", Proc. SPIE 2090, Multilevel Interconnection: Issues That Impact Competitiveness, (15 September 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.156519; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.156519

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