The creation of low noise heterodyne receivers for frequencies above 1 THz is in the urgentneed for radio astronomy, laser spectroscopy, plasma diagnostic, etc. In this paper we discussthe nonlinear effect related to hot electrons in superconductors, and their potential use in lownoise submilimeter wave mixer. We also discuss results achieved so far as well as possible futuredevelopments.
E. M. Gershenzon,
"Hot-electron superconducting mixers", Proc. SPIE 2104, 18th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 21043O (30 August 1993); doi: 10.1117/12.2298564; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2298564