21 July 1994 Factors for consideration in assessing UV transmission through clothing materials
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When considering the degree of protection from erythema, afforded to humans by clothing materials, due to exposure to solar UV, the UV transmittance of the radiation over the spectral region 290 nm to 330 nm is considered. This can be expressed as the ratio of transmitted effective irradiance to the incident effective irradiance. We can define an effective UV blocking factor as one which is a function of the inverse of the transmittance and termed the `Ultraviolet Protection Factor' (UPF). In practical terms, the UPF factor will be determined from transmittance measurements of the materials. This paper reports the importance of a number of physical parameters eg. physical geometry factors such as material-to-detector distance, which need to be addressed in order to ensure that the assessment of solar UV transmittance through clothing materials provides a physically realistic determination, which translates consistently to an appropriate and technically correct UPF factor. In addition, a determination of the direct and indirect UV irradiance and transmittance components is presented.
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B. W. Thomas, B. W. Thomas, Cho-Fai Wong, Cho-Fai Wong, R. A. Fleming, R. A. Fleming, Zixin Zhang, Zixin Zhang, } "Factors for consideration in assessing UV transmission through clothing materials", Proc. SPIE 2134, Laser-Tissue Interaction V; and Ultraviolet Radiation Hazards, (21 July 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.180823; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.180823

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