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17 August 1994 Low-level lasers: their role in the mechanisms of the stimulation of the reparative processes
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The transformation of light energy into thermal energy with extremely high temperatures, the evaporation of interstitial and intracellular fluids, and the cytoplasmic proteins coagulation are the most important factors in the mechanism of high-power lasers effect on biological tissues. A set of dystrophic disorders develops in tissues as a result, up to the coagulative necrosis, which lays in the basis of the laser thermal crust at incised edges. With CO2 laser the damage is evident from the first cell layers. Its size is in the linear correlation with exposure time. The Nd:YAG and argon lasers' light penetrates the superficial cell layers without damage practically and realizes in deeper well vascularized tissue layers, the submucous layer of the gastrointestinal hollow organs, in particular. It depends on the closeness of the irradiation spectrum of absorption of hemoglobin and result in blood coagulation in the vascular lumine with formation of the `coagulative laser thrombi.' That explains a wide use of laser irradiation in urgent endoscopy for arresting acute gastrointestinal hemorrhages. For these reasons Nd:YAG laser `contact scalpel' technique with sapphire tips is used for incisions on parenchymatous organs with simultaneous blood coagulation in vessels lumina with good hemostasis and holestasis (hepatobiliar surgery), and for pancreas and thyroid surgery, in gynecology and other surgical areas.
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Vladimir I. Yeliseenko "Low-level lasers: their role in the mechanisms of the stimulation of the reparative processes", Proc. SPIE 2134, Laser-Tissue Interaction V; and Ultraviolet Radiation Hazards, (17 August 1994);

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