2 May 1994 Characterization of lithium niobate electro-optic modulators at cryogenic temperatures
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Abstract
This paper reports on the operation of lithium niobate electro-optic waveguide modulators at temperatures down to 15 degree(s)K. Commercial and laboratory fiber pigtailed devices have successfully been cooled without any increases in insertion loss from temperature induced stresses in device packaging. Three x-cut devices exhibited a linear increase in Vpi voltage of 8% +/- 1% when cooled from room temperature to approximately 20 degree(s)K. The broadband frequency response improved at lower temperatures. A velocity-matched experimental modulator has shown increased bandwidth when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature.
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Jeffrey D. Morse, Kent George McCammon, Charles F. McConaghy, Don A. Masquelier, Henry E. Garrett, Mark E. Lowry, "Characterization of lithium niobate electro-optic modulators at cryogenic temperatures", Proc. SPIE 2150, Design, Simulation, and Fabrication of Optoelectronic Devices and Circuits, (2 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.175011; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.175011
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