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11 May 1994 Segmentation of the brain from 3D MRI using a hierarchical active surface template
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The accurate segmentation of the brain from three-dimensional medical imagery is important as the basis for visualization, morphometry, surgical planning and intraoperative navigation. The complex and variable nature of brain anatomy makes recognition of the brain boundaries a difficult problem and frustrates segmentation schemes based solely on local image features. We have developed a deformable surface model of the brain as a mechanism for utilizing a priori anatomical knowledge in the segmentation process. The active surface template uses an energy minimization scheme to find a globally consistent surface configuration given a set of potentially ambiguous image features. Solution of the entire 3D problem at once produces superior results to those achieved using a slice by slice approach. We have achieved good results with MR image volumes of both normal and abnormal subjects. Evaluation of the segmentation results has been performed using cadaver studies.
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John W. Snell, Michael B. Merickel, James M. Ortega, John C. Goble, James R. Brookeman, and Neal F. Kassell M.D. "Segmentation of the brain from 3D MRI using a hierarchical active surface template", Proc. SPIE 2167, Medical Imaging 1994: Image Processing, (11 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.175044;

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