1 May 1994 Fast adaptive arithmetic coding
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The number of operations in the coding part of adaptive arithmetic coding is independent of the number of symbols. The number of operations in a traditional implementation of the adaptive part, however, increases linearly with the number of symbols. therefore, the adaptive updating of the model consumes the vase majority of computational operations if the number of symbols is large, as is typical in image coding. This paper presents a fast alternative of implementing the adaptive part in a hierarchical fashion so that the number of operations depends only logarithmically on the number of symbols.
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Krystyna W. Ohnesorge, Martin Bichsel, "Fast adaptive arithmetic coding", Proc. SPIE 2186, Image and Video Compression, (1 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.173929; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.173929

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