1 May 1994 Thin film multilayers of TiNi/TiO2/PZT: material fabrication
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Heterostructure multilayers of ferroelastic TiNi coupled to thin film TiO2 and ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) produces a smart material capable of performing both sensing and actuating functions. An important issue is the ability to generate the appropriate crystalline phases of each of the materials and to minimize the chemical interactions from the surrounding material. TiO2 and PZT thin films were deposited onto commercially available TiNi substrates by the sol-gel process. Minimum crystallization temperatures for the TiO2 phases and PZT perovskite phases were determined and characterized by x-ray diffraction.
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Peter G. Mercado and A. Peter Jardine "Thin film multilayers of TiNi/TiO2/PZT: material fabrication", Proc. SPIE 2189, Smart Structures and Materials 1994: Smart Materials, (1 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.174066; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.174066

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