6 May 1994 Design of high-force high-displacement actuators for helicopter rotors
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Abstract
We develop electromechanical actuators based on the concept of mechanical amplification with piezo and electrostrictive stacks as drivers to achieve high force and high displacement actuation. The actuators were designed for two different applications. Experiments were performed on both stacks to evaluate their important characteristics such as block force, free displacement, and stiffness that were essential in the design of the actuators. The results showed that the block force obtainable from piezo stack was higher and that of electrostrictive stack was lower than that specified by the respective manufacturers while the free displacements are about the same. The dynamic response of the actuators over a frequency range of 33 Hz was evaluated. Results showed that the actuation force of 7 lbs was obtainable in both cases with flaperon actuator producing 15 mils of dynamic displacement at 15 Hz and droop flap actuator producing about 6 mils of displacement at 16 Hz. The results were inconclusive beyond 16 Hz due to the setup resonance. Droop flap actuator did not achieve the desired performance because the design calculations were based on block force listed by the manufacturer which was about 20% higher than the measured value. This led to the conclusion that before design process begins, the stack alone performance should be carefully measured to achieve required performance. Thus, a simple actuator based on mechnaical amplification concept could be effectively designed to produce high force and high displacements.
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Dhananjay K. Samak, Inderjit Chopra, "Design of high-force high-displacement actuators for helicopter rotors", Proc. SPIE 2190, Smart Structures and Materials 1994: Smart Structures and Intelligent Systems, (6 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.175244; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.175244
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