6 May 1994 Induced strain actuation of composite beams and rotor blades with embedded piezoceramic elements
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The objective of this research is to develop a dynamically scaled (Froude scale) helicopter rotor blade with embedded piezoceramic elements as sensors and actuators to control blade vibrations. A 6-ft-diameter two-bladed bearingless rotor model was built, where each blade is embedded with banks of piezoelectric actuators at +/- 45-degree angles with respect to the beam axis on the top and bottom surfaces. A twist distribution along the blade span is achieved through in-phase excitation of the top and bottom actuators at equal potentials, while a bending distribution is achieved through out-of-phase excitation. In order to fix design variables and to optimize blade performance, a uniform strain beam theory is formulated to analytically predict the static bending and torsional response of composite rectangular beams with embedded piezoelectric actuators. Parameters such as bond thicknesses, actuator skew angle, and actuator spacing are investigated by experiments and then validated by theory. The static bending and torsional response of the rotor blades is experimentally measured and correlated with theory. Dynamic torsional and bending responses are experimentally determined for frequencies from 2-120 HZ to assess the viability of a vibration reduction system based on piezoactuation of blade twist. Although the magnitudes of blade twist attained in this experiment were small, it is expected that future models can be built with improved performance.
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Peter C. Chen, Peter C. Chen, Inderjit Chopra, Inderjit Chopra, } "Induced strain actuation of composite beams and rotor blades with embedded piezoceramic elements", Proc. SPIE 2190, Smart Structures and Materials 1994: Smart Structures and Intelligent Systems, (6 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.175176; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.175176

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