13 May 1994 Modeling of a positive chemically amplified photoresist for x-ray lithography
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Abstract
This paper reports the initial results on modeling of a positive chemically amplified photoresist for x-ray lithography. A positive tone chemically amplified photoresist, APEX-M from the IBM Corp., was exposed with synchrotron radiation. A kinetic model for exposure and post- exposure bake has been developed. The FTIR spectroscopy measurement data show that the photoacid loss reaction during post-exposure bake is described as a second order reaction. For the mask patterned photoresist, this leads to a nonlinear diffusion -- reaction equation. It was shown that the second order photoacid loss mechanism results in different values of the photoacid diffusion range for different exposure doses. A simulation method has been developed to take into account simultaneously photoacid diffusion and photoacid loss for the latent image of the photoresist. The x-ray exposure simulation tool XLITH and the photoresist development simulator SAMPLE-3D have been used for verification of the model for 0.25 micrometers patterns. The experimental and simulated profiles have shown good agreement.
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Azalia A. Krasnoperova, Azalia A. Krasnoperova, Steven J. Rhyner, Steven J. Rhyner, Yueqi Zhu, Yueqi Zhu, James Welch Taylor, James Welch Taylor, Franco Cerrina, Franco Cerrina, Whitson G. Waldo, Whitson G. Waldo, } "Modeling of a positive chemically amplified photoresist for x-ray lithography", Proc. SPIE 2194, Electron-Beam, X-Ray, and Ion-Beam Submicrometer Lithographies for Manufacturing IV, (13 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.175805; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.175805
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