13 May 1994 Synchrotron irradiation stability of x-ray masks utilizing stress-free W-Ti absorbers and SiC membranes
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The radiation damage of the component materials of x-ray masks such as W-Ti absorbers, SiC membranes, and indium tin oxide (ITO) films as anti-reflection coating materials was investigated mechanically and optically. The stress change of the stress-free W-Ti absorber after an SR irradiation dose of 670 MJ/cm3 was less than 1 MPa. The radiation stability of the absorber was confirmed even after stress-free annealing treatment. Exposure of the SiC membranes was conducted for the entire area of the window under the conditions similar to those for pattern exposure. The SR-induced distortion of the SiC membrane was less than 20 nm with a dose of 130 MJ/cm3 and the decrease of the transmission after the SR irradiation was less than 1% over the entire visible region. The dependence of the membrane stress on the radiation damage was not observed. As for the ITO films, it was observed that the stress changed to the compressive side with the increase in the SR irradiation dose independent of the initial stress condition and deposition techniques. In this experiment, the spin-coated ITO showed the best stability against SR irradiation in comparison with the sputtering and electron beam (EB) evaporation techniques. The refractive index of the ITO film did not show a marked change before and after SR irradiation.
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Hiroshi Okuyama, Hiroshi Okuyama, Yoshio Yamashita, Yoshio Yamashita, Kenji Marumoto, Kenji Marumoto, Hideki Yabe, Hideki Yabe, Yasuji Matsui, Yasuji Matsui, Yoichi Yamaguchi, Yoichi Yamaguchi, Tsutomu Shoki, Tsutomu Shoki, Hiroyuki Nagasawa, Hiroyuki Nagasawa, } "Synchrotron irradiation stability of x-ray masks utilizing stress-free W-Ti absorbers and SiC membranes", Proc. SPIE 2194, Electron-Beam, X-Ray, and Ion-Beam Submicrometer Lithographies for Manufacturing IV, (13 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.175799; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.175799

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