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16 May 1994 Novolak-polyhydroxystyrene copolymer and photoresist compositions
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Novolak-polyhydroxystyrene copolymers with a high glass transition temperature were synthesized. Copolymers with different compositions (Novolak/PHS ratio) show improved resin characteristics, compared to either novolak or novolak/PHS blend. The novolak-PHS copolymer formation is confirmed by carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. This technique has provided detailed information on the substitution characteristic of various carbon atoms in the polymer. For example, the carbons bearing hydroxy groups are observed in the range 148-156 ppm and the methylene carbons at 25-36 ppm. The methyl groups on the aromatic ring show chemical shifts at 16 and 25 ppm. Chemical shifts of carbons in various isomers of model compounds have been assigned to respective carbons, which confirms the structure (structure 1) for this copolymer. Novolak-PHS copolymer can be formulated into a high performance and high thermal stability positive photoresist whereas physical blend of novolak and polyhydroxystyrene is not useful. The synthesis of the copolymer and the micro lithographic properties is discussed. The paper discusses comparative data on Novolak-PHS copolymer and novolak/PHS polymer blends.
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M. Dalil Rahman, Ping-Hung Lu, Mohammad A. Khadim, Elaine Kokinda, and Daniel P. Aubin "Novolak-polyhydroxystyrene copolymer and photoresist compositions", Proc. SPIE 2195, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XI, (16 May 1994);

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