31 May 1994 Multitiered wavefront sensor using binary optics
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Wavefront sensors have been used to make measurements in fluid-dynamics and for closed loop control of adaptive optics. In most common Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors, the light is broken up into series of rectangular or hexagonal apertures that divide the light into a series of focal spots. The position of these focal spots is used to determine the wavefront slopes over each subaperture. Using binary optics technology, we have developed a hierarchical or fractal wavefront sensor that divides the subapertures up on a more optimal fashion. We have demonstrated this concept for up to four tiers and developed the wavefront reconstruction methods for both segmented adaptive optics and continuous wavefront measurement.
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Daniel R. Neal, Mial E. Warren, James K. Gruetzner, Tony G. Smith, R. R. Rosenthal, T. Stewart McKechnie, "Multitiered wavefront sensor using binary optics", Proc. SPIE 2201, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, (31 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.176045; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.176045

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