1 March 1995 Infrared-to-visible upconversion fluorescence and laser emission in rare-earth compounds
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Infrared-to-visible upconversion in a variety of rare-earth compounds leads to strong fluorescence and also to laser emission in the visible upon excitation of the media by an appropriate infrared beam. Usually, a diode laser operating at a wavelength of about 800 nm is used as a pumping source. Efficiency of the upconversion process strongly depends on temperature. The best results were obtained at liquid nitrogen or lower temperatures. The reason for lowering temperatures is to depopulate the ground state manifold and to reduce the quenching of fluorescence by phonons. Upconversion based fluorescence and laser emission in rare-earth doped crystals (mainly in erbium doped materials) as well as in stoichiometric erbium pentaphosphate are described.
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Franciszek K. Kaczmarek, Franciszek K. Kaczmarek, } "Infrared-to-visible upconversion fluorescence and laser emission in rare-earth compounds", Proc. SPIE 2202, Laser Technology IV: Research Trends, Instrumentation, and Applications in Metrology and Materials Processing, (1 March 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.203225; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.203225

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