13 September 1994 Wind velocity, water vapor, and temperature measurements from space using 2-μm Tm:Ho;YAG laser
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In meteorological and climatological fields, the scientific community will increasingly need global measurements of key atmospheric parameters with high spatial resolution (horizontal as well as vertical): the spaceborne lidars are the most suitable instruments for those missions. While backscatter lidar (ATLID, currently studied as ESA) is presently first candidate for space deployment, the next generation of lidars will be DIAL and Doppler wind lidars, presenting a higher level of complexity, mainly due to the large power and complex signal processing required. The present considered wind lidars are based on CO2 lasers, whose space compliance still needs confirmation, while alexandrite lasers are considered for water vapor and temperature measurements, but they need flashlamp pumping which poses a lot of several thermal constraints and lifetime problems: on the other side, the recent developments achieved in solid-state technology allow to envisage diode pumping as most promising possibility for both previous applications.
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Jean-Bernard Ghibaudo, Rodolphe Krawczyk, Errico Armandillo, Marc A. Faucheux, G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, E. Hettlage, Pierre H. Flamant, Jacques R. Pelon, Roberta Fantoni, G. Salvetti, Giorgio Fiocco, and Willy A.R. Luethy "Wind velocity, water vapor, and temperature measurements from space using 2-μm Tm:Ho;YAG laser", Proc. SPIE 2209, Space Optics 1994: Earth Observation and Astronomy, (13 September 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.185249; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.185249

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