28 July 1994 Achieving mass fabrication of microoptical systems by combining deep-x-ray lithography, electroforming, micromolding, and embossing
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Abstract
The paper reviews the application of deep X-ray lithography in conjunction with electroforming, plastic molding, and stamping (LIGA) for a mass production of micro- and submicron-structured photonic devices. LIGA technology offers almost total design freedom in lateral structuring and a high aspect ratio of 100. Vertical walls with heights up to 1 mm and optical grade surfaces enable their use as functional optical surfaces. It is possible to process a variety of materials such as metals and different polymers, including those with nonlinear optical properties. Therefore, Y-branches, couplers, and structures for the positioning and fixing of fibers, detectors, and light emitters can be integrated on one chip to build up hybrid optoelectronic devices.
© (1994) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Michael Abraham, Michael Abraham, Hans-Dieter Bauer, Hans-Dieter Bauer, Wolfgang Ehrfeld, Wolfgang Ehrfeld, Mathias M. Gerner, Mathias M. Gerner, Manfred Lacher, Manfred Lacher, Heinz Lehr, Heinz Lehr, Holger Loewe, Holger Loewe, Andreas Michel, Andreas Michel, Andreas Ruf, Andreas Ruf, Helmut Schift, Helmut Schift, Andreas Schmidt, Andreas Schmidt, Lutz Weber, Lutz Weber, "Achieving mass fabrication of microoptical systems by combining deep-x-ray lithography, electroforming, micromolding, and embossing", Proc. SPIE 2213, Nanofabrication Technologies and Device Integration, (28 July 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.180982; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.180982
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