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10 June 1994 Helmet-mounted display requirements: just another head-up display (HUD) or a different animal altogether?
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Abstract
The helmet-mounted display (HMD) presents flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. The present study reviewed the state-of-the-art in HMDs and identified a number of issues applying to HMDs. Several are identical to head-up display (HUD) issues: symbol standardization, excessive clutter, and the need for integration with other cockpit displays and controls. Other issues are unique to the head-mounted display: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and field-of-view (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. Symbol stabilization is critical. In the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. This high workload translates into excessive training requirements. At the same time, misleading symbology makes interpretation of the height of obstructions impossible. The underlying cause is the absence of design criteria for HMDs. The existing military standard does not reflect the current state of technology. In addition, there are inadequate test and evaluation guidelines. The situation parallels the situation for HUDs several years ago.
© (1994) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Richard L. Newman and Loran A. Haworth "Helmet-mounted display requirements: just another head-up display (HUD) or a different animal altogether?", Proc. SPIE 2218, Helmet- and Head-Mounted Displays and Symbology Design Requirements, (10 June 1994); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.177365
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