23 June 1994 Optical effects of condensates on cryogenic mirrors for the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX)
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The effect of condensates on optical surfaces is a continuing concern for space-based optical systems such as the Midcourse Space Experiment. Many such systems contain cryogenic optical surfaces that operate on low temperatures where gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water will condense. This study presents the effects of these gases on mirror surfaces at temperatures as low as 15 K under high vacuum conditions. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function was determined for these condensates in various film thicknesses up to 8 mm. Optical scatter, thickness, and density measurements were obtained simultaneously with the superpolished quartz crystal microbalance (SPQCM). Correlations between thin film deposition, as determined by the SPQCM, and the expected increase in optical scatter are shown. These correlations are important in determining launch decisions in cases where various degrees of condensation may have occurred on cryogenic optical systems during ground processing.
© (1994) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
O. Manuel Uy, O. Manuel Uy, Jeffrey C. Lesho, Jeffrey C. Lesho, Bryan L. Seiber, Bryan L. Seiber, Robert J. Bryson, Robert J. Bryson, Bob E. Wood, Bob E. Wood, "Optical effects of condensates on cryogenic mirrors for the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX)", Proc. SPIE 2227, Cryogenic Optical Systems and Instruments VI, (23 June 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.178615; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.178615

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