This report reviews research and development efforts within the last years for vacuum electron tubes, in particular power grid tubes for industrial applications. Physical and chemical effects are discussed that determine the performance of todays devices. Due to the progress made in the fundamental understanding of materials and newly developed processes the reliability and reproducibility of power grid tubes could be improved considerably. Modern computer controlled manufacturing methods ensure a high reproducibility of production and continuous quality certification according to ISO 9001 guarantees future high quality standards. Some typical applications of these tubes are given as an example.
Bernd Gellert, Bernd Gellert,
"Electron tubes for industrial applications", Proc. SPIE 2259, XVI International Symposium on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum, (1 May 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.174648; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.174648