17 October 1994 CdHgTe-CMOS hybrid focal plane arrays: a flexible solution for advanced infrared systems
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Abstract
This paper describes a generic focal plane technology which has been developed to serve a range of second generation infrared system applications in the UK and Europe. These applications call for both two-dimensional and long linear arrays, and spectral sensitivities from 2.5 to 12.5 micrometers . The infrared sensor technology is based on CdHgTe material grown by the tellurium rich, liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) process and lateral collection photodiode arrays. The CdHgTe arrays are mounted on custom designed CMOS integrated circuits which provide the multiplexing and signal processing functions required by the system. The technical directions chosen for the LPE growth process and the hybrid fabrication process to produce the highest performance after multiplexing are described, along with a discussion of some of the performance limits for this technology. The producibility, environmental stability and typical radiometric performance are presented with respect to one focal plane type, a 1024 element long linear array. Recently, the availability of denser CMOS processes has enabled some special techniques to be developed for advanced infrared search- and-track and high performance imaging applications. Such applications require the highest possible performance, and call for special functions such as: signal-to-noise enhancement by time-delay and integration (TDI), defective element deselection (DED) for redundancy, large numbers of elements, and low image crosstalk. The technical routes chosen for long wavelength, long linear arrays are outlined, and prototype devices with up to 12 elements in TDI, user-definable DED, and a pixel size of 30 micrometers square are described.
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Ian M. Baker, Ian M. Baker, Graham J. Crimes, Graham J. Crimes, John E. Parsons, John E. Parsons, Eoin S. O'Keefe, Eoin S. O'Keefe, } "CdHgTe-CMOS hybrid focal plane arrays: a flexible solution for advanced infrared systems", Proc. SPIE 2269, Infrared Technology XX, (17 October 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.188683; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.188683
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