23 September 1994 Electro-optical properties and poling stability of high glass transition polymers
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Four high Tg side chain polymers have been investigated based on polyimide and acrylate backbones functionalized with DR1 and heterocyclic thiophene chromophores. UV-VIS studies revealed chromophore stability up to 210 degree(s)C. Maximum poling efficiency was found approximately 15 K above Tg. From dielectric relaxation studies and from poling dynamics it is obvious that chromophore reorientation follows an Arrhenius law at temperatures well above Tg leading into a WLF-behavior in the vicinity of Tg. Relaxation of the EO-coefficient could be interpreted in terms of a KWW function. The average relaxation times strongly deviate from the WLF-function at temperatures well below Tg and can be described with an Arrhenius law. Activation energies here are significantly smaller than those in the high temperature limit above Tg, indicating that the chromophore dipoles are incompletely coupled to the polymer (alpha) process. Very good stability was observed for the polyimide P3 with average relaxation times of 104 years at 50 degree(s)C and 4 months at 120 degree(s)C. EO coefficients of up to 12 pm/V at 1541 nm were realized using a poling field strength of 1 MV/cm. EO-coefficient at constant poling field was found to be approximately linearly dependent on chromophore content. Channeled waveguides were fabricated by selective reactive ion etching with small losses of 1 dB/cm at 1318 nm. However, loss varies strongly between 1 dB/cm and 3 dB/cm depending on film quality.
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Manfred Eich, Manfred Eich, Hanno Beisinghoff, Hanno Beisinghoff, Bengt Knoedler, Bengt Knoedler, Michael Ohl, Michael Ohl, Martin Sprave, Martin Sprave, Jan Vydra, Jan Vydra, M. Eckl, M. Eckl, Peter Strohriegl, Peter Strohriegl, Michael Doerr, Michael Doerr, Rudolf Zentel, Rudolf Zentel, M. Ahlheim, M. Ahlheim, M. Staehelin, M. Staehelin, B. Zysset, B. Zysset, Julienne Liang, Julienne Liang, Regine Levenson, Regine Levenson, Joseph Zyss, Joseph Zyss, } "Electro-optical properties and poling stability of high glass transition polymers", Proc. SPIE 2285, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VII, (23 September 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.187506; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.187506

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