21 October 1994 Chemical sensing of in situ extracted organics by direct detection of mode-filtered light
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A novel chemical analyzer is described in which an optical fiber is inserted into a transparent capillary tube, such that the inner diameter of the tube is only a few microns larger than the outer diameter of the fiber cladding. This configuration is referred to as a torus column. When a sample volume is introduced to the torus column at a low flow rate, propagated light is mode-filtered due to a change in the critical angle at the core/clad interface, as a result of in-situ extracted chemical species. Conventionally, chemical species extracted into the cladding are sensed as a change in the transmitted light at the end of the fiber. An alternative approach, measuring this mode-filtered light directly along the side of the fiber, is reported. The new approach has a signal-to-noise advantage over the conventional approach. The result is a low volume sensor that temporally separates, as well as detects, chemical species that partition into the fiber cladding. The temporal information enhances sensor performance, providing first order information for subsequent data analysis. We have examined the modulation of the critical angle by chemical species of interest at steady-state concentrations, and as transient concentration profiles that were shifted in time. In summary, the analyzer has chemical selectivity provided by differences in the refractive index, distribution coefficient, and transient time of the concentration profile of each chemical species in a sample. The chemical analyzer should be a promising tool for process and environmental monitoring.
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Robert E. Synovec, Robert E. Synovec, Carsten A. Bruckner, Carsten A. Bruckner, Lloyd W. Burgess, Lloyd W. Burgess, M. D. Foster, M. D. Foster, } "Chemical sensing of in situ extracted organics by direct detection of mode-filtered light", Proc. SPIE 2293, Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VI, (21 October 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.190966; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.190966

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