14 September 1994 Practical, nondestructive method to profile near-surface and subsurface defects in semiconductor wafers
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Abstract
P-type wafers with oxygen concentration in two ranges near 30 ppma and 33 ppma, respectively, were processed through key thermal cycles. These processes were designed to denude the surface of oxygen, begin nucleation, and precipitate a portion of the oxygen in the bulk for intrinsic gettering. The samples were evaluated using nondestructive optical production profiling (OPP), and the results compared with surface photovoltage (SPV) measurements and cleave-and-etch inspection. The denuded zone depth (DZ) and bulk microdefect density (BMD) measured by OPP gave reasonable correlation with the diffusion lengths determined by SPV. The OPP data also showed the same general trends as the cleave- and-etch data. The shallower DZ and higher BMD reported by OPP in contrast to cleave-and-etch, however, are presumably due to the greater sensitivity of OPP to small defects.
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Mark A. Nokes, Mark A. Nokes, Pamela Flesher, Pamela Flesher, Peter Borden, Peter Borden, Damon K. DeBusk, Damon K. DeBusk, John K. Lowell, John K. Lowell, Dale E. Hill, Dale E. Hill, Gary Allen, Gary Allen, } "Practical, nondestructive method to profile near-surface and subsurface defects in semiconductor wafers", Proc. SPIE 2337, Optical Characterization Techniques for High-Performance Microelectronic Device Manufacturing, (14 September 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.186637; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.186637
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